Inflammatory Basis For Psychiatric Symptoms

Posted on August 21st, 2012

So many patients we see are given bogus psychiatric diagnoses. If inflammation can cause these symptoms, though inflammation isn’t the only cause, then there should be some academic literature that supports the idea.

Here are just a few recent references that are of interest.


1. Raedler T. Inflammatory mechanisms in major depressive disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2011; 6: 519-25.

2. Kahl K, Bens S, Ziegler K, Rudolf S. Kordon A, Dibbelt L, Schweiger U. Angiogenic factors in patients with current major depressive disorder co-morbid with borderline personality disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009;

3: 353-7. 3. Li Y, Xiao B, Qiu W, Yang L, Hu B, Tian X, Yang H. Altered expression of CD4(+)CD25 regulatory T cells and its 5-HT (1a) receptor in patients with major depression disorder. J Affect Disord 2010; 1-2: 68-75

4. Kim Y, Lee S, Kim S, Shim S, Han S, Choi S, Lee B. Differences in cytokines between non-suicidal patients and suicidal patients in major depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2008; 2: 356-61.

5. Caraci F, Bosco P, Signorelli M, Spada R, Cosentino F, Toscano G, Bonforte C, Muratore S, Prestianni G, Panerai S, Giambirtone M, Gulotta E, Romano C, Salluzzo M, Nicoletti F, Copani A, Drago F, Aguglia E, Ferri R. The CC genotype of transforming growth factor-B1 increases the risk of late-onset Alzheimer’s disease and is associated with AD-related depression. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2012; 4: 281-9.

6. Maes M. Depression is an inflammatory disease, but cell-mediated immune activation is the key component of depression. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2011; 3: 664-75.

7. Rothenburg L, Herrmann N, Swardfager W, Black S, Tennen G, Kiss A, Gladstone D, Ween J, Snaiderman A, Lanctot K. The relationship between inflammatory markers and post stroke cognitive impairment. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2010; 3: 199-205

8. Moreau M, Andre C, O’Connor J, Dumich S, Woods J, Kelley K, Dantzer R, Lestage J, Castanon N. Inoculation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin to mice induces an acute episode of sickness behavior followed by chronic depressive-like behavior. Brain Behav Immun 2008; 7: 1087-95.

9. Fernois F, Moreau M, O’Connor J, Lawson M, Micon C, Lestage J, Kelley K, Dantzer R, Castanon N. Lipopolysaccharide induces delayed FosB/DeltaFosB immunostaining within the mouse extended amygdale, hippocampus and hypothalamus, that parallel the expression of depressive-like behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2007; 5: 516-31.

10. de Paiva V, Lima S, Fernandes M, Soncini R, Andrade C, Giusti-Paiva A. Prostaglandins mediate depressive-like behaviour induced by endotoxin in mice. Behav Brain Res 2010; 1: 146-51.

11. Menza M, Dobkin R, Marin H, Mark M, Gara M, Bienfait K, Dicke A, Kusnekov A. the role of inflammatory cyt9okines in cognition and other non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Psychosomatics 2010; 6: 474-9.

12. Al-shair K, Kolsum U, Dockry R, Morris J, Singh D, Vestbo J. Biomarkers of systemic inflammation and depression and fatigue in moderate clinically stable COPD. Respir Res 2011; 5: 12-3.

13. Norheim K, Jonsson G, Omdal R. Biological mechanisms of chronic fatigue. Rheumatology 2011; 6: 1009-18.

14. Antonchak M, Saoudian M, Khan A, Brunner H, Luggen M. Cognitive dysfunction in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled study. J Rheumatol 2011; 6: 1020-5.

15. Maes M, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, Leunis J, Geffard M. IgM-mediated autoimmune responses directed against multiple neoepitopes in depression: new pathways that underpin the inflammatory and neuroprogressive pathophysiology. J Affect Disord 2011; 1-3: 414-8.

16. Walker J, Graff L, Dutz J, Bernstein C. Psychiatric disorders in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: prevalence, association with disease activity, and overall patient well-being. J Rheumatol Suppl 2011; 88: 31-5.

17. Leonard B, Maes M. Mechanistic explanations how cell-mediated immune activation, inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways and their sequels and concomitants play a role in the pathophysiology of unipolar depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2012; 2: 764-85.

18. Maes M, Ruckoanich P, Chang Y, Mahanonda N, Berk M. Multiple aberrations in shared inflammatory and oxidative & nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways explain the co-association of depression and cardiovascular disorder (CVC), and the increased risk for CBD and due mortality in depressed patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2011; 3: 769-83.

19. Leonard B, Maes M. Mechanistic explanations how cell-mediated immune activation, inflammation and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways and their sequels and concomitants play a role in the pathophysiology of unipolar depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2012; 2: 764-85.

20. Ramasubbu R, Beaulieu S, Taylor V, Schaffer A, McIntyre R. The CANMAT task force recommendations for the management of patients with mood disorders and comorbid medical conditions: diagnostic, assessment, and treatment principles. Ann Clin Psychiatry 2012; 1: 82-90.

21. Krishnadas R, Cavanagh J. Depression: an inflammatory illness? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2012; 5: 495-502.



3 Responses to Inflammatory Basis For Psychiatric Symptoms

  1. Deb says:

    Hi, for the past year I have been to doctor after doctor trying to get help.
    The house that I leased and paid for in advance was loaded with mold, my son is about to be removed and placed I in a residential home because his behavior coincides with our move last June we live else where but still have possession of the property until 6/5 I am wearing a wig , my son can’t bend over urine has blood I expect perm damages . Need legal council, my son is ten on Monday my baby does not undrstand

  2. Mold removal is so important if you have a problem in your home.
    Over an extended time, the consumptions of toxins may cause a person to develop liver
    cancer and other potentially terminal cancers, the Environmental
    Protection Agency has stated. While most surfaces can be cleaned, there are some that simply need replacing.

  3. Daniel Ferraz says:

    One year and 1/2 ago I started waking up during the night with panic attacks which would continue during the day after a few days. Many health issues started to happen, dizziness, ears beeping/tinnitus, I started to go from doctor to doctor, got in a major depression and generalized anxiety. Been diagnosed with all these and bipolar disorder which people that know me don’t believe I am bipolar. Have been given many medications which made worse.
    Found out by a doctor that suggested I test my house and my blood for mold. The house had mold and my blood was found with trichothecenes which I found out reading on the internet is a mycotoxin but is one of the most toxic.
    I life has been upside down since them. Lots of fears and sense of insecurity. People just don’t understand what is going on inside my nervous system and it doesn’t make sense many times anyway. But after finding some information so far things started to make some sense.
    I am mentioning only part of the disaster but the good news is that there is hope.
    One of the things that has helped significantly and recently are: TM meditation(every day), Cantron, a product prescribed by a alternative Dr that analyzes the blood and by the way this Dr showed me my own blood cells on the computer screen from a microscop and he pointed all the fungus and a type of net formed in the blood by toxins and free radicals which lacks the transport of nutrients throughout the body. My blood cells also show all attached one to another and not rounded as it should be. Also he said there is a huge lack of oxygen in my blood.
    This Dr prescribed me to take a product called X-Fungal and return in one month for another test. After a month I returned and and did the test. My blood and cells and fungus look exactly the same. The only difference I feel is that I don’t have more the extreme fatigue I used to have but I was told it’s from the Cantron.
    I still under medication for depression and for bipolar disorder but taking much lower doses but I still have many of the symptoms. And one of the psychiatrist thinks it all could be caused by the toxins.
    What is the best and effective way to get treatment ?

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