Why This Assay?
Chronic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (CIRS) is a form of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) and is often acquired via many different mechanisms: exposure to cyanobacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria, mycobacteria etc.
Why test? Because CIRS masquerades as many illnesses.
According to a 2009 World Health Organization report, in a Water Damaged Building people are chronically exposed to different microbes and/or compounds of microbial or other origin that are present in the indoor air of a WDB. These compounds can be called toxins or inflammagens; all initiate an innate immune inflammatory response in the human host. These microbes and compounds include but are not limited to fungi, bacteria, actinomycetes, and mycobacteria and their toxins; as well as inflammagens from fragments of fungal structures; and beta glucans, mannans, hemolysins, proteinases, spirocyclic drimanes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A constant exposure to the above microbes and/or compounds can result in a recurrent activation of immune responses leading to exaggerated immune responses and prolonged production of inflammatory mediators, especially in the absence of regulation of inflammation by neuropeptides MSH or VIP.
Some of the organisms that make biotoxins that can cause CIRS include dinoflagellates (Pfiesteria, Gambierdiscus (ciguatera), Karenia (and other species that produce brevetoxins) cyanobacteria (Microcystis, Cylindrospermopsis, Lyngbya wollei); fungi (Wallemia, Stachybotrys, Chaetomium, Trichoderma, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus versicolor and others.); actinomycetes (Streptomyces and others); apicomplexans (Babesia, Sarcocystis, Eimeria); and spirochetes (Borrelia spp burgdorferi and (likely) B. lonestari). Organisms such as commensal multiple-antibiotic resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MARCoNS), including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis, may also contribute to CIRS.